Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), was an Italian astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, musician, artist and mathematician who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance, variously called the "father of observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", and the "father of science". His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honor), and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments.
Galileo was tried by the Inquisition, found "vehemently suspect of heresy," forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest, writing one of his most well known works, “Two New Sciences,” now called kinematics and strength of materials.
Despite being a genuinely pious Roman Catholic, Galileo fathered three children out of wedlock with Marina Gamba.